The range of skin allergies and infections is astounding. While some are manageable with prescribed medicines others are severe enough to kill. Skin allergies and diseases can be caused by a variety of factors that include immune system disorders, certain medications and infections. Skin allergy symptoms are bumps, itching, redness of the skin and other skin conditions like the peeling of skin, blisters, thickening of skins, pain, numbness, tenderness or swelling of the skin.
The best skin allergy treatment is prevention. Try to find out what is the cause behind your rash and try to avoid it.
When you have a reaction, try to resist the urge to scratch to prevent an infection. Few skin allergy treatments are:
- Antibiotic creams
- Hydrocortisone cream
- Ointments like calamine lotion
- Cold compresses
- Oatmeal baths
Some common skin diseases are:
Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a viral skin disorder, characterized by a rash of raised dots that turns into painful blisters, they cause your skin to burn, itch, tingle, or become very sensitive. It is triggered by chickenpox virus. Old people and people with weak immune systems are commonly attacked by this skin disease.
Shingles Symptoms and Treatment
Shingles develop in three different stages. Symptoms in each stage are:
- Pain, tickling, burning, tingling, and numbness in the area around the affected nerves.
- Flu-like symptoms.
- Swelling and tenderness of the lymph nodes.
- A band, strip, or small area of rash starts appearing along with blisters. Fluid inside the blisters is clear initially but turns cloudy after 3-4 days.
- Rashes may occur on the forehead, cheek, nose, and around one eye.
- Pain occurs along with the skin rash.
- Blisters may break open and ooze in about five days. The rash heals within 4 weeks.
Chronic pain stage
- Aching, burning, stabbing pain in the area of rash.
- Persistent pain that lingers for years.
- Extreme sensitivity to touch.
- Affects eating, sleeping, and daily activities.
There is no cure for shingles. Treatments may shorten the span of this skin disorder and prevents complications. Treatment options include:
- Antiviral medicines to reduce the pain and duration of shingles.
- Pain medicines, antidepressants, and topical creams to relieve long-term pain.
They are common skin problems which look like welts and can itch, sting or burn. Extreme temperatures, infections and allergies to foods, medications, and food additives are its causes.
Hives Symptoms and Treatment
Symptoms of this skin disease are:
- Raised itchy bumps, either red or skin-colored
The best treatment of hives is to avoid the trigger or eliminate it:
- Avoid foods identified to cause your symptoms.
- Avoid rubbing or scratching: Regular baths may reduce itching and scratching. Avoid harsh soaps which can make the hives worse.
- Avoid tight clothing.
- Temperature: If you develop hives when exposed to cold, do not swim in cold water. Always carry the epinephrine auto-injector. Avoid exposure to cold air. When you go out in cold, wear warm clothing.
- Avoid exposure to the sun. Apply sunscreens and wear covered clothes.
- Avoid certain medications if you suspect them to trigger your hives.
It is a chronic skin disease caused by an overactive immune system. Red patches of skin with white or silvery scales are symptoms of psoriasis. The patches can occur on your scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. It is treated with steroid creams, occlusion, light therapy and oral medications, such as biologics.
Psoriasis Symptoms and treatment
Symptoms of this skin disease are as follows:
- Raised, bright red patches of skin, covered with loose silvery scales, usually on the knees, elbows, or low back.
- Bleeding starts when skin scales scraped off.
- Mild scaling and crusted plaques on the scalp.
- Pitted nails.
- Similar plaques appear in the same area on both sides of the body.
- Joint swelling, tenderness, and pain.
There is no cure for psoriasis at present. Various treatments are available including phototherapy, skin ointments and oral medicines, which helps to control this skin disease. Most cases are mild and can be treated with skin products.
Mild cases of psoriasis can be treated with:
- Creams, ointments, and lotions to moisturize the skin.
- Shampoos, oils, and sprays to treat psoriasis of the scalp.
- Some exposure to sunlight.
Depending on the types of psoriasis, treatment may also include:
- Skin products that your doctor prescribes.
- Pills that your doctor prescribes.
- Shots to help your immune system.
Eczema is one of the common skin allergies that can cause inflamed, red, dry, and itchy skin. It is triggered by stress, irritants (like soaps), allergens, and climate. It generally affects babies and children, but in rare cases it can also affect adults.
Eczema Symptoms and Treatment
The symptoms of this kind of skin allergy are:
- Redness of skin caused by too much of blood flowing through the blood vessels in the affected area.
- A grainy appearance of the skin caused by tiny fluid-filled blisters.
- Crusts or scabs after the fluid dry up.
- Dry, scaly skin.
- Pale patches of skin may appear.
- It leads to lichenification, a leathery, thicker skin area in response to scratching.
The primary goal of eczema treatment is to reduce the itchy sensation which worsens the symptoms. Eczema can be managed and treated by:
- Avoiding likely sources of irritation (triggers)
- Using emollients such as special bath oils and moisturisers.
- Steroids, such as hydrocortisone, may be used to reduce the inflammation in response to an allergic reaction.
- Pimecrolimus cream, which is a topical steroid-free anti-inflammatory medication, is often recommended to treat eczema.
- Tar preparations such as coal tar which have anti-itching and anti-eczema properties can be used to treat eczema
- Diet therapy.
- Antihistamines may help the itching caused by eczema.
- In severe cases, phototherapy treatment may be suggested.
It is a common skin disease caused by the herpes simplex virus which causes small, painful, fluid filled blisters on your mouth or nose. Cold sores last about ten days and are infectious.
Cold Sore Symptoms and Treatment
Symptoms of cold sore are:
- Blisters appear on the lips and the edge of the mouth which usually break
- A sore mouth that makes eating, drinking, and sleeping uncomfortable. Cold sores can be painful.
- A fever.
- A sore throat.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
- Drooling, in small children.
There is no cure for cold sores. Most of them cure on their own. Medicines may reduce the duration of cold sores or prevent a future outbreak.
Treatment of recurrent cold sores includes:
- Topical creams or ointments can reduce pain, itching, and healing time.
- Oral antiviral medicines may be used initially.
It occurs when a skin pore clogged with sebum and dead skin cells gets inflamed.
Acne Symptoms and Treatments
Symptoms of acne include:
- Crusting of skin bumps.
- Papules (small red bumps)
- Redness around the skin eruptions
- Scarring of the skin
There are many effective treatments for acne. They are:
- Topical treatments which are applied on the skin
- Antibiotics which help to kill bacteria and reduce skin inflammation
- Laser and other light therapies
- Chemical peels
- Drainage and extraction of acne cysts
Skin tags are very common skin disorders characterised by soft, small, harmless skin growths. They appear on eyelids, armpits, neck, groin folds, and under breasts. Middle-aged, obese people are prone to skin tags. Removing a skin tag aggravates the skin problem.
Skin Tags treatment
Skin tags usually do not need treatments. In case they become bothersome, multiple treatment options are available:
- Tie off the tag with a piece of dental floss or string.
- Freeze the tag with liquid nitrogen.
- Burn the tag using electric cautery or electrodesiccation.
- Remove the tag with scissors, with or without anaesthetic.
- Skin removal with scissors.
- Freezing using liquid nitrogen
- Burning of infected skin using medical electric cautery.
Other common skin problems and skin allergies include:
Rosacea: Rosacea involves redness on your nose, chin, cheeks, and forehead. You may have thickened skin, bumps and pimples. It can even affect your eyes.
Rash from Plants: A skin contact with poison ivy, oak, or sumac causes a rash in many people. It is a common skin allergy which begins with redness and swelling at the site followed by itching and blisters.
Razor Bumps: This is another type of skin allergy where small rashes pop up after you shave. It can cause irritation, pimples, and even scars.
Athlete’s Foot: It is a fungal skin infection which causes your feet to peel, turn red, itch, and burn.
Age Spots (Liver Spots): This is a kind of skin allergy in which pesky brown or gray spots appear on the skin due to prolonged exposure to sunlight.
Pityriasis Rosea: It is a harmless rash that begins as a single scaly, pink patch with raised border and later starts to itch and spread. It often goes away without treatment.
Melasma (chloasma): It is often called the pregnancy mask. It is characterised by tan or brown patches on your cheeks, nose, forehead, and chin.
Warts: Warts are small benign growths that mostly appear on the fingers or hands. Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus.
Skin diseases do not just affect the skin they creates a huge impact on a person’s day-to-day life. Most skin diseases are not harmful in themselves but they can crush your self-confidence, restrict free movement and even lead to depression and ruin relationships. Majority of skin diseases are curable if treated at early stages. Don’t shy away from consulting a dermatologist if you notice any abnormalities in your skin.
All the treatments – medicines, injections and vaccines are for general information of the reader. Please consult a doctor and get a formal prescription before taking any medicines, supplements and injections.
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