Cardiovascular diseases are a class of diseases that involve the blood vessels or Heart. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases such as myocardial infarction commonly known as a heart attack and angina. Other Cardiovascular diseases include stroke, hypertensive heart disease, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, heart arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, valvular heart disease, thromboembolic disease, peripheral artery disease, and venous thrombosis. Receptors called bar receptors examine the blood pressure and make necessary changes to help maintain a moderately stable blood pressure when a person changes positions or is doing other actions. The bar receptors become lesser sensitive to aging. This may give an explanation why many elderly people have orthostatic hypotension, a situation in which the blood pressure falls when a person goes from sitting to standing or lying. This causes lightheadedness because there is less blood flow to the brain.
Ischemia or inadequate blood flow to tissues, causing a deficiency of oxygen that is required for cellular metabolism to keep tissue alive. Ischemia is usually caused by troubles with blood vessels, with resulting damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also called local anemia in a certain part of a body sometimes resulting from blockages such as vasoconstriction, embolism or thrombosis. Ischemia comprises not an only deficiency of oxygen, but also reduced the availability of nutrients and insufficient exclusion of metabolic wastes. Ischemia can be partial poor perfusion or total.
A recently invented gene helps to grow blood vessels when it senses short supply of blood flow to tissues. The research, published by National Academy of Sciences, was led by Dr. Philip Marsden, of St. Michael’s Hospital, a clinician-scientist in the Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, and Dr. Jeffrey Man, a researcher in his lab. The outcome is important because they could help scientists improved understanding of cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease and strokes, which result from insufficient blood flow. Dr. Marsden’s lab studies endothelial cells, the cells that line up the inside of blood vessels. For this research, they looked at a newly illustrated group of genes called long non-coding RNAs, or lncRNAs. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is seen in all cells and it has been thought traditionally that its main activity was to carry commands from genes in DNA to build proteins. But lncRNAs have other duties, which include determining the eventual function that each individual cell will play in an organism. Studying lncRNAs gives researchers chance to find new markers and tests to help diagnoses for patients. They then invented lncRNAs, called STEEL, which was the one that senses unsatisfactory blood flow in microscopic blood vessels. These results show that our bodies are really finely tuned to perform with the newly discovered gene.
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